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Thursday, March 31, 2011

Repair the Lid Close Switch on a Toshiba Tecra A2 Laptop



Switch on a Tecra A2 laptop is the button that communicates when to turn off the screen when you close the laptop lid. A dirty close switch might get stuck inside the laptop and interrupt power supply from the inverter board. If your screen remains blank when the laptop is open, you might have a jammed close switch.

1). Use your index finger to press down on the close switch. Apply force to unstick a sticky close switch.

2). Dislodge dirt and debris with a pair of tweezers. Maneuver the tweezers around the close switch to remove buildup.

3). Spray the base of the close switch with compressed air. The burst of air may dislodge debris that couldn't be removed by tweezers.

Farmville Tips and Tricks



Game developers Zynga bring you the most popular application on Facebook! Live the rural dream in FarmVille, where you grow delicious fruits and vegetables and raise adorable animals on your very own farm. Alongside your neighbors, plow, plant, and harvest fields with crops such as strawberries, eggplant and artichokes. Earn XP (experience points) and coins to expand your acreage or decorate your farm with trees, fences, ponds, or barns. Work faster with vehicles like tractors, harvesters, and seeders, and rear livestock such as cows, sheep, and pigs. The more you help your neighbors, the faster you’ll level up.

Laptop LCD Inverter



All laptops are comprised of numerous parts, but the LCD inverter plays an especially important role. The inverter is one of several key parts within a laptop's display; it helps to illuminate the screen. If an inverter wasn't installed in your laptop, you wouldn't be able to see anything on the display.

Purpose
Normally, a notebook's screen will display windows and other user-controlled elements. But without a backlight, the viewing experience would be similar to looking at a film reel without a projector. The inverter allows for the laptop's display to be lit by providing power to the screen's backlight.

What Does the Inverter Do on Laptops?


Electricity is delivered to your home as alternating current, but laptops and many other electronics use the simpler direct current. The power inverter on your laptop cord is responsible for switching current from alternating to direct.

Direct Current
Direct current (DC) electricity can be envisioned as flowing through conductive material in much the same way water does. The current moves through a circuit in one direction and at a constant voltage. This greater uniformity of current makes it ideal for powering laptops and other electronics.

Signs of a Laptop Overheating



Overheating a laptop can cause serious problems. Look out for the warning signs and you may be able to head off the problem before it becomes an issue. Sometimes overheating is caused by insufficient ventilation below the computer; elevating it or adding a cooling station can fix the problem.

Excess Heat
The first sign of a laptop overheating is an abnormal amount of heat coming from it, especially if it is in an area of poor ventilation, such as a couch, bed or on a flat lap with the user's knees closed. When a computer overheats, the keyboard will start to heat up, and the bottom will feel hot rather than warm to the touch.

The Best Ways to Save Laptop Batteries



 Modern laptop personal computers have processing technologies and powerful software applications that have become so advanced as to replicate the desktop PC experience. To maximize the mobile computing benefits that laptop PCs offer, users can keep in mind several measures to both conserve the capacity of their laptop battery, and extend the battery's life for as long as possible.

Background
According to PC Magazine, a typical laptop battery will enable the PC to run at full power for a few hours. In most cases, after about 18 to 24 months, laptop users will notice a steady degradation in the performance of the battery, and that the battery will run the PC for less and less time after each recharge. This is because lithium ion batteries have a limited number of charge cycles -- meaning a limited number of times they can be taken from a full charge to a full discharge -- before they aren't able to hold power on their own.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Turn on Number Lock on a Laptop




Eliminating the separate number pad is one of the changes most manufacturers make to save space in a laptop computer case. This allows the keys on the laptop keyboard to be large enough for most people to operate comfortably. The number pad didn't disappear completely though. It has been integrated with the standard keyboard with some of the keys doing double duty.

1). Locate the "FN" key on the keyboard. In most cases, it is between the "Ctrl" key and the "Windows" key on the lower-left side of the keyboard.

Kensington Lock Instructions

The Kensington Security Slot is a small locking mechanism used on devices, such as laptops, computer monitors and video game consoles. The Kensington lock then connects to this slot to lock the device securely to a desk or other solid surface to prevent theft. The locks use either combinations or keys for a convenient way to protect your expensive equipment. While not unbreakable, securing your valuables with a Kensington lock can save it from an opportunistic thief.

1). Secure the security wire of the Kensington lock to a large, solid surface. This can be a desk, bedpost or any similar heavy object that is not likely to get stolen. Wrap the security wire around the object and slide the lock end through the loop end of the wire.

Restore Function on an HP Laptop not working



What Happens When You Lose the PC Restore Function on an HP Laptop?

Hewlett Packard laptops come with several tools for backing up and restoring information, including the ability to completely restore the entire system to its factory settings. If these functions are lost, users must access the default Windows tools for restoration or use other third-party software.

Cause
The primary "C" drive of an HP laptop comes with a built-in partition labeled "HP Recovery." This partition stores all the information required for the HP restoration functions. Removing, renaming or tampering with the drive causes these tools to become unavailable.

Repair an HP Laptop Power Jack


 The majority of problems with DC power jacks on HP laptop models stem directly from a crack forming between the power jack's positive pin and the motherboard. A good way to determine that this is the problem you are experiencing with your HP laptop is to see if it operates solely on the battery when you plug the AC power adapter into a working electrical outlet. This problem with the power jack eventually results in a dead battery that won't recharge, and a laptop that is not getting any power.

Here are the sptes:
1). Slide your electrostatic discharge wrist strap onto your wrist.

2). Open the link provided in the "Resources" section below. Identify your HP laptop model in the list and click on it. Click on "Manuals," then click on "Maintenance and Service Guide." Click on "Removal and Replacement Procedures."

3). Follow the disassembly instructions and take your laptop apart to gain access to the defective power jack.

4). Lift the motherboard up and out of your laptop and set it aside.

Use a Laptop IR As a Remote Reader



 The IrDA protocol, created by the Infrared Data Association, specifies how two devices can communicate using a line-of-sight, infrared connection over short distances. Many laptops include an IrDA-capable hardware transceiver in their factory configurations. IrDA transceivers are typically located in the front edge of the laptop. You can configure the infrared (IR) port on your laptop so that it becomes capable of wireless communication with cellular phones, PDAs and other mobile devices.

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Sapphire Radeon HD 6870 Vapor



Introduction:
According to Steam, over 94% of the computer users using Steam are running Windows 7 with DirectX 11 video cards.  In fact as of the January Steam Hardware and Software Survey the most popular video card is still the NVIDIA GeForce 8800 which is a DirectX 8 part with a 5.77% market share and the 9800 with a 5.55% market share. NVIDIA and AMD both say that most people upgrade their video cards in a 3 year upgrade cycle.

Sapphire is a manufacturer of video cards based upon AMD chips like the Barts and the Cayman. They were one of the first to launch a HD 6870 in October of 2010 and have released a second series of cards this month.  This series is a custom set of PCBs using things like Sapphire’s Vapor-X cooling and different configurations of display options (Flex). Today’s review is on the Sapphire RADEON HD 6870 Vapor-X edition card. It is a reference card in terms of clock speed but the cooler keeps the card running cooler.

Features:
·        900MHz Engine Clock each card
·        1GB GDDR5 memory each card
·        1050MHz Memory Clock (GDDR5)
·        134.4GB/second memory bandwidth (maximum)
·        2 TeraFLOPs compute power each card
·        TeraScale 2 Unified Processing Architecture
·        1120 Stream Processors each card
·        VC-1
·        MPEG-1 (SD and HD)
·        Enhanced Video Quality Features
·        Advanced post-processing and scaling
·        Dynamic contrast enhancement and color correction
·        DXVA 1.0 and 2.0 support
·        AMD HD3D technology
·        Stereoscopic 3D display/glasses support
·        Blu-ray 3D support
·        Stereoscopic 3D gaming
·        3rd party Stereoscopic 3D middleware software support
·        AMD CrossfireX multi-GPU technology
·        DisplayPort 1.2
·        Maximum resolution 2560x1600 per display
·        21.6Gbps bandwidth
·        High bit-rate audio

Sapphire’s new card is based upon AMD’s Barts XT chip which was announced last year in October as the replacement for the HD 5770 and 5830. This chip has 1120 SPs which is split into 14 SIMD arrays with 16 SPs per SIMD Each SIMD can do five instructions per clock with four simple and one medium  instructions supported. This brings a total of 1120.

The HD 6870 has 1.7 billion transistors and is manufactured on TSMC’s 40nm fabrication process. AMD’s chip has 56 texture units, 32 ROPs (Outputted Pixels), and 128 Z/Stencil units. AMD says this card can do 2 TeraFLOPs of computing power which is equivalent to last year’s HD 5870.  AMD’s goal with the Barts chip was to deliver near the same performance as last year’s chip for a lower price.

Eyefinity is AMD’s trademarked term for their multi-display technology. With the launch of the HD 5 series last year every video card was capable of 3-display Surround gaming.  This compares favorably with NVIDIA’s solution which requires two video cards running in SLI mode to run 3 monitors. AMD’s solution allows up to six monitors on their Eyefinity Edition cards. With the launch of the HD 6 series AMD has updated their cards with DisplayPort 1.2 connections, allowing daisy chaining of monitors with MST hubs. In the meantime the HD 6870 can connect up to five monitors at once.

DirectX 11 is rapidly becoming the standard for video games being released today. With features such as hardware tessellation, Shader Model 5.0, Compute Shaders and Multi-threading, DirectX 11 really shines in games that support it like HAWX2. HAWX2 uses hardware tessellation to show off detailed terrain including mountains with crevasses and trees, to the tune of 1.5 million polygons just in the terrain alone.  Without tessellation and displacement mapping the terrain is a lot less detailed. Other games such as Aliens Versus Predator also use tessellation to good effect.

Setup and Performance:

Test System

·        ASUS P6X58D Premium motherboard
·        Intel i7 980X CPU
·        24GB Kingston DDR3-1866MHz memory
·        Thermaltake SpinQ CPU cooler
·        Sapphire RADEON HD 6870 Vapor-X video card running Catalyst 11.1 900MHz core/1050MHz memory
·        Windows 7 64-bit Ultimate Edition
·        Thermaltake ToughPower XT 850 PSU

Tests
·        Uningine Heaven benchmark 1920x1200 8x FSAA 16x AF benchmark
·        Just Cause 2  1920x1200 8x FSAA 16x AF benchmark
·        Aliens Versus Predator 1920x1200 8x FSAA 16x AF Custom FRAPS walkthrough
·        Dirt2 1920x1200 8x FSAA 16x AF benchmark

Use a Keyboard to Wake a Computer From Hibernation


Laptop hibernation helps conserve energy when you'll be away from your computer for some time. In Hibernate mode, your computer writes an image of whatever you're doing onto a file on the hard drive before shutting down almost completely. While it may take longer to boot up than when your computer is in Standby mode, Hibernate is ideal for when you'll be away from your machine for long periods of time but want to save your settings.

Follow the below steps:
1). Click "Start" and then choose "Control Panel." Change the Control Panel so that it is in "Classic View" by clicking the button on the left side panel.

2). Select "Power Options" in the Control Panel. At the top of the Power Options window, you'll see tabs. Select the one that reads "Hibernation." Click the box beside "Enable Hibernation" so that a green check mark appears.

Upgrade a Dell Inspiron From WEP to WPA


WEP and WPA are forms of security passwords for a wireless Internet connection used to prevent other people from detecting and connecting to your personal home router. WEP is an older form of security that is not as secure as the newer WPA form. If your Dell Inspiron computer is connected to a wireless router that currently uses WEP, you can connect into that router and change the security form to WPA for stronger encryption.

1). Launch your Internet browser program on your Dell Inspiron.

2). Type your router's IP address in the browser's address bar and press the "Enter" key on your keyboard to launch the router's login prompt. You may need to consult your router's manual for information on your router's default IP address.

How to Find a Wireless Wep Password



Each laptop and wireless device that you own must use the WEP password in order to connect to the wireless router. To find the security key, you will need to log into your router's administrator dashboard from a computer that is currently connected to the router.

1). Open your Internet browser on a computer that is connected to the wireless router.

2). Type the IP address for your router in the address bar of your browser. The IP address may vary depending on the brand and model of your router. You will find the default IP address listed in your router's instruction manual.

USB Portable Diskette Drives



 The IBM ThinkPad USB Portable Diskette Drive, manufactured by Lenovo, is similar to an external hard drive or other external device. It connects to a USB port on the IBM ThinkPad laptop and upgrades a floppy drive to a USB drive for computer readability. The USB Portable Diskette Drive can be used with Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows Millennium Edition (Me) and Windows 98. The USB Portable Diskette Drive comes bundled with a CD-Rom containing driver updates.

Physical Features
The USB Portable Diskette Drive is .65 inches high, 4.06 inches wide x 5.51" deep. It weighs .51 lbs and requires an optimum operating temperate between 39 and 125 degrees Fahrenheit. It reads and writes 1.44 MB diskette media and 720 KB. The Diskette Drive comes with a carrying case and a USB cable.

Monday, March 28, 2011

Return Toshiba Laptop to Original Settings


Most performance issues with a laptop are not with the hardware but with the software installed on the computer. Viruses, malware, poorly written programs and poor maintenance practices are just a few things that cause Windows to slow down or even become unresponsive sometimes. When virus scans or registry cleaners cannot help, it is time to start over and restore the laptop to its factory default settings.

1). Connect an external hard drive or USB flash port to the laptop. Back up important data and document files because the recovery utility deletes any user created files when restoring the laptop.

2). Power off the Toshiba laptop and connect the AC power adapter. Press the "0" (zero) key and hold it while pressing the "Power" button on the Toshiba laptop. Wait for the "Toshiba HDD Recovery Utility" menu screen to appear on the display.

3). Press the "1" key to select the "Restore Original Factory Image (Recommended)" option. Click "Yes" when confirmation message appears on the screen.

Erase the Password Protection on a ThinkPad Hard Drive




IBM ThinkPad hard drives have the ability to by secured by setting a supervisor password. The hard drive cannot be used and none of the data on it can be accessed without first entering the supervisor password. If it is no longer necessary to password-protect your hard drive, removing the password allows the hard drive to be accessed more quickly by bypassing the password input steps. Once a password has been set, it can be changed or removed at any time.

1). Turn off the computer that the hard drive is installed in. Leave the computer off for at least five seconds.

Saturday, March 26, 2011

How Do I Know in What Port My USB Cable Goes


 In the early days of home computers, any external gadgets, such as speakers or monitors, had to be connected to a specific port. Not only did this limit the amount of hardware you could hook up, but it also meant that many products could be connected only to compatible machines. The Universal Serial Bus was released in 1995 to make things easier for both consumers and manufacturers. Regardless of whether you're plugging in a keyboard, a monitor or a printer, if your hardware has a USB plug, it can be plugged into any open USB port.

Fix USB Ports That Aren't Working


 Over the last decade, the Universal Serial Bus replaced all other add-on ports to become the primary method for attaching devices to computers. All computers now come with several open USB ports on the rear of the case and often some on the front for convenience. If one or several of these ports won't work, reinstalling the USB drivers or reconnecting the internal wiring usually solves the problem.

1). Attach a different device to the malfunctioning port to ensure the port itself has failed, rather than the specific device. If nothing will work on the port, then the USB port itself has the problem.

2). Open the "Start" menu and click "Control Panel." Click "System and Maintenance" and finally "Device Manager." Enter the administrator password if the system asks for it.

Friday, March 25, 2011

Definition of USB Port

Universal Serial Bus ports allow you to connect your digital or Web camera to your computer to take and transfer pictures. The same ports offer the ability to hook up your printer to make hard copies of text documents or even to print photos from your digital camera. Cell phones, MP3 players, speakers and other devices can also be attached via USB ports, making them some of the most commonly used on a computer.

Function
USB is a technology that supports data transfer to devices such as computers, televisions or printers from a variety of devices including, but not limited to, computer mouses, cameras, cell phones, MP3 players, external hard drives and memory sticks or thumb drives. The USB port is the interface into which you plug your USB cable or device on your computer. Typically, computers contain one or more USB ports for use with devices.

BIOS Tips


The BIOS, or the Basic Input/Output System, is software that is separate from the operating system. It is responsible for facilitating important hardware activities, such as hard disk, RAM and processor performance. Understanding its importance and knowing how to load your BIOS page and other BIOS-related tasks can be helpful.

Loading the BIOS Setup
Boot the computer. While in the POST (Power On Self Test), wait for the computer to show a message on what key to press to enter the "BIOS Setup." Some of the most used keys of BIOS manufacturers include F1, F2, F6, F10, Del and Esc. When prompted to press the key, press it at once before the computer boots the next drive in line.

Configuring the BIOS
If you think that you accidentally changed an important BIOS setting, revert it to its original setting. If you are not sure which setting was changed, exit the BIOS without saving the changes made. Changing the BIOS settings to default, if your BIOS has this option, is not recommended since your computer vendor may have changed the default settings before you even bought the computer. If you are trying to change the settings, and the BIOS password is enabled, you will be asked for the password before changes are made.

How to Find a Lost File by Text it Contains on a PC



When you have had your computer for a while, chances are you may have misplaced a file or two. Even with your best attempts to stay organized, it can be difficult to remember the name of a specific file or which folder you put it into. When this happens, don't spend hours digging through various folders in hunt of an elusive file. Instead, take advantage of Windows' ability to search through your files for the one you want.

1). Click the "Start" button.

2). Enter one or more distinctive search terms from the file you wish to locate into the text box that appears at the bottom of the list of options that come up. The box should initially contain the words "Search programs and files," but these will disappear when you click within the box to start typing. Your search terms do not need to appear in the file's title. Choosing distinctive rather than common words from the file will make it easier to find the file you are looking for.

Advantages & Disadvantages of an Optical Mouse



An optimal mouse can either can an attached or wireless device used to move the cursor around and select objects on a computer screen. An optical mouse works by taking repeated images of its location and adjusts the cursor on the computer screen when the images it takes shifts direction. Optical mouse technology has improved greatly since the beginning of the computer age, but it does have its pros and cons. A mouse is typically graded on cursor accuracy, convenience, energy and surface compatibility.

Cursor Accuracy
The cursor accuracy of an optical mouse is typically high as it can analyze changing positions at 700 mm/sec and read up to 200 to 300 dots per inch. This means that it reads its location fast with high precision. In comparison to a mechanical mouse, an optical mouse does not wear down in accuracy because it does not have the same moving parts that a mechanical mouse has. However, the accuracy can be reduced if the open hole leading to the laser area is dirty.

Uninstall a Synaptics Pointing Device



Windows 7 computers are pre-installed with touchpads that act as mice. The Synaptics Pointing Device driver becomes corrupt or interferes with another mouse that you are using. If this occurs, one option is to uninstall the Synaptics Pointing Device driver. Be warned that this will render the touchpad unusable, but you can always reinstall the driver later if you decide you need it.

1). Go to "Start" and type the command "devmgmt.msc" in the blank box above the "Start" button. Press the "Enter" key. This will bring up the Device Management box.

2). Type in the administrator password or click the "Continue" button.

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Change Batteries on a Wireless Optical Mouse


 Most wireless mice run on AA batteries. Since your mouse's batteries will need to be changed from time to time, the battery compartment on your mouse will be easily accessible. No tools are needed for this task.

1). Turn your mouse upside down. If your mouse has a power switch, turn your mouse off at this time. You will see a rectangular hatch in the base of the mouse. This is the battery cover. Press the cover down slightly and slide it off. This will expose the battery compartment.

2). Remove the old batteries using your fingers. Do not insert foreign objects. If the batteries are rechargeable, put them in their charger. Otherwise, throw them away.

Scan Two-Sided Documents



When you scan a document, you are actually converting it into an image. After the document is converted, you can leave it as an image or copy it to an electronic document on your computer. If you need to scan both sides of a document, you can do that without purchasing a special scanner. Windows comes with a free program that allows you to combine scanned images into a single file.

Scan Document
1). Turn on the scanner. Place your document face down on your scanner tray and close the lid.

2). Scan the document according to the scanner manufacturer's instructions. Usually, you simply press the "Scan" button.

3). Wait for the scanner to scan the document. The scanner will convert the document into an image.

Reset a Laptop


You're working on an important document, making great progress -- when suddenly your laptop freezes. The mouse won't move, pressing Ctrl+Alt+Delete does nothing, and all the hard work you've done is lost. For some reason, this keeps happening. Virus scanners detect nothing, disk defragmenting didn't work -- your laptop still freezes. The last resort, short of wiping the hard drive clean, is a hard reset. A hard reset will restore certain settings back to factory defaults, which may be enough to fix your problem.

1). Turn off your laptop by clicking "Start" and then "Shutdown." If your laptop is frozen, hold down the "Power" button until it turns off.

The Cursor on an IBM Laptop Is Stuck



IBM, now Lenovo, laptops come with an additional piece of software that allows you to control aspects of the ThinkPad laptop interface. This software overrides the settings in Microsoft Windows and can be used to administer and disable the laptop's pointing devices. Often times, the cursor will be unable to move because this software has disabled it. Additionally, you can turn the pointing devices on and off either through other software or hardware triggers.

Hotkeys
Press the "FN" and "F8" keys simultaneously to trigger the laptop's pointing devices on or off. This is the most common reason your pointing devices become disabled, through accidentally pressing the wrong function key. If this doesn't work to turn the touch pad back on, the mouse may be physically disabled by the ThinkPad software, ThinkVantage.

Dell Inspiron Recovery



The Dell DataSafe Local Backup recovery program pre-installed on Dell Inspiron computers gives you a lot of recovery options. The programs let you create recovery discs, backups, or restore the machine to its original factory settings. The recovery program is set up on a small partition on the computer's hard drive and can be accessed from the "Start" menu.

Create Backup
Click the "Start" icon in the lower-left corner of the Windows 7 home screen. Click "All Programs," "Dell DataSafe" and then "Dell DataSafe Local Backup." Click "Backup" in the upper-left corner of the program window. Select "Full System Backup" and then click "Backup Now." Select the location where the backup should be saved from the list of possible destinations appearing on the screen, and then click "Next." Click "Next" to back up the Dell Inspiron.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

How to Clean a Trackpad


 If you have purchased a second-hand laptop, or you simply like to keep your current laptop as clean as possible, then you'll probably want to clean the trackpad. Because this part of the computer is constantly being touched by fingers, it's a good idea to disinfect it first. The good news is that cleaning the trackpad can be completed in a minute or two.

1). Wipe the trackpad gently with a disinfectant wipe. Make sure you cover all exposed areas of the trackpad. One coating is good. You don't want the trackpad to become too wet with disinfectant.

Replace a Laptop Keyboard



There are many reasons a laptop keyboard might become defective and require replacement. Whether it is from spilling a cup of coffee or overuse from writing a long novel or two, laptop keyboards usually do not last forever. If you take your laptop to a repair shop for a keyboard replacement, you should expect to pay a hefty premium to have the work done. On the other hand, if you are handy with a few basic hand tools, you can replace your laptop's keyboard yourself and save a lot of money.

1). Power off the laptop. Disconnect the AC adapter from the computer. Unplug any other cables or peripherals from the notebook. Close the laptop LCD screen.

2). Turn the laptop over so that it is upside down. Rotate the laptop until the battery on the bottom of the unit faces you. Slide the battery lock to the left and remove the battery from the laptop. Turn the laptop back over.

3). Open the LCD display screen on the laptop as far as it will go. The laptop display and base should be almost flat after opening the screen all the way.

4). Locate the keyboard edge cover or hinge cover just above the function keys on the top row of the keyboard. Position the awl at one end of the cover and insert it into the space between the bottom of the cover and the top row on the keyboard. Gently pry up the cover with the awl while working your way from one side of the laptop to the other. Gently lift the keyboard edge cover or hinge cover out of the laptop and set it aside.

5). Use the Phillips screwdriver to remove the keyboard retaining screws in the space from which you removed the edge or hinge cover. On most laptops, there are usually two to four screws that secure the keyboard. Set the screws aside in a safe place.

Remove a Drive From a RAID-5 Volume



RAID 5, also known as RAID Level 5, writes both data and parity information across multiple drives. RAID 5 is designed to improve write performance of your hard disk. When a drive in the RAID Level 5 array crashes or fails, you need to remove and replace the dysfunctional drive. Doing so ensures that you don't lose any data from your hard disk. Note that you will need administrative rights and privileges to remove the drive from the array.

1). Log in to your computer using administrative user name and password.

2). Click "Start" and type "Disk Management" (without the quotes) in the search box that appears at the very bottom of the "Start" menu. Click to launch "Disk Management" from the search results.

3). Locate the drive that is labeled as "Failed."

4). Right-click the drive and choose "Remove Volume" from the context menu.

How to Parallel Computers



 There are different levels of parallelism to consider, such as bit level, instruction level, data and task parallelism. Different types of parallelism have varied purposes, depending on whether they are multi-core, multi-processor, stand-alone or networked computers. Parallelism is often confused with clusters and grid computers, which are multiple computers designed to work on the same task -- as opposed to sharing individual computer resources, such as processor or memory.

1). Identify the hardware attributes of your computers. Take an inventory of all the pieces of equipment, including computers, that you will possibly be using in your parallel configuration. Note all the attributes of a particular device, include its processing power, type, disk capacity and memory.

2). Choose the levels of parallelism required for your situation. The parallelism may operate at more than one level, including bit-level, instruction level, data, or be task-oriented.

Setting Up a Wireless Router With DSL


 You can share a high-speed DSL connection between multiple users without a major decrease in Internet speed. Each brand of router uses a slightly different set-up method, but they all share several common steps that are necessary to configure your router to share a DSL Internet connection.

1). Select a location for your wireless router. The router should ideally be near your DSL modem and a computer.

2). Unplug the DSL modem from its power outlet. Plug the router's power cable into a wall outlet. Connect the Ethernet port on the back of your DSL modem to the WAN port on the back of the router with an Ethernet cable. The WAN port will be slightly separated from the other Ethernet ports on the router. Plug the DSL modem back into the wall outlet.

3). Connect one of the LAN Ethernet ports on the back of the router to the Ethernet port on your computer with an Ethernet cable. If you cannot directly connect to an Ethernet port, connect to the router's wireless network with a computer that has a wireless networking card. Select the name of the network from the computer's "Available Networks" list, which is accessible from the network icon in the task bar.

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